From ACC Wiki
Let me explore my easiest concepts in a different style.
Just don't teach me all the time in your preferred style
and think I'm not capable of learning."
Center for Learning and Teaching, Cornell University, USA.
Frequently-used variations on the VAK are the VARK model (the "R" breaks out Reading/Writing from Visual - see the VARK logo at the top of this page) and even the VACT model ("T" breaks out Tactile or touch from Kinesthetic, as in the image to the right). Both the VARK and the VACT add a fourth mode and category to the mix of the VAK's three style categories.
Learners use all three of the VAK sensory modes to receive information. However, one or more of these sensory modes is usually preferred/dominant. This preferred sensory mode, or style, suggests the best way for a person to learn new information, although this preference may not always to be the same for all tasks. The learner may prefer one mode of learning for one task, and a different style or a blend of styles for another task.
VAK Learner Characteristics
- Visual Learners tend to say "show me" and "I see what you mean."
- Visual Learners learn best by seeing, reading, writing, drawing and like written instructions.
- Typically Visual Learners are less satisfied with a presentation where they cannot take detailed notes. Some visual learners will even take notes when they have printed materials on the desk in front of them.
- Visual learners make up approximately 65% of the population.
- Auditory Learners take in information through listening to the spoken word, to self or others, to sounds and music and noises.
- Auditory Learners tend to say "tell me" and "I hear what you are saying."
- Auditory Learners learn best by saying things aloud or repeating words and key points in their heads.
- Auditory Learners like lectures, debates, discussions, audiotapes, and verbal instructions.
- Auditory Learners tend to listen to a lecture, and then take notes afterward, or rely on printed notes.
- Often information written down will have little meaning to Auditory Learners until they have heard it.
- Auditory Learners learn by talking and listening and information does not seem real to them until they have had a chance to discuss it.
- Auditory learners make up about 30% of the population.
- Kinesthetic Learners like physical experiences - touching, feeling, holding, doing, and MOVING - practical hands-on experiences and physical activities.
- Kinesthetic Learners tend to say "let me try " and "I know how you feel."
- Kinesthetic Learners learn best by moving (either small-motor movement such as taking notes or large-motor movement such as walking around the room while thinking), and by touching, doing, practicing, or even imagining an activity being done.
- The kinesthetic learner has to feel or live the experience in order to learn it.
- Kinesthetic Learners like hands-on labs, field trips, projects, trial-and-error, and real-life examples.
- Kinesthetic Learners learn skills by imitation and practice. It's important to note that learners who are predominantly kinesthetic can appear "slow," because classroom information is normally not presented in a style that suits their learning methods.
- Kinesthetic learners make up around 5% of the population.
Want to know more about the VAK model? Review these resources:
- Fleming, N.D. (1995). I'm different; not dumb: Modes of presentation (VARK) in the tertiary classroom. In Zelmer, A. (Ed.). Research and Development in Higher Education, Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Conference of the Higher Education and Research Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA), 18 (pp. 308 - 313). Available from http://www.vark-learn.com/documents/different_not_dumb.pdf
- Fleming, N. D., & Baume, D. (2006, November). Learning styles again: VARKing up the right tree! Educational Developments, SEDA Ltd, 7.4, 4-7. Available from http://www.vark-learn.com/documents/Educational%20Developments.pdf